|Smaller crews, mixed nationalities||Social isolation and loneliness|
|Quicker turn-around times||Stress on board or at home|
|Long contracts and extended working hours||Diet and exercise|
|Layers of management and ship operations||Problems in communication|
|Increased security and safety regulations||Fatigue|
|Accidents or sickness|
Mental Health and Social Isolation
“Social isolation is a state of separation from others, which is often involuntary and experienced negatively. It is one form of the psychological state of alienation and can cause feelings of boredom, marginality, exclusion, anger, despair, sadness, frustration and especially loneliness”.